According to Dr Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and her colleagues, smoking increases the risk of moderate to severe PMS and provides another reason for women especially adolescents and young women, not to smoke.
Smoking has been shown to affect levels of several different hormones and the handful of studies looking into PMS and smoking have suggested that women with the syndrome are more likely to be smokers.
These researchers looked at a subset of women who were PMS-free during the first 2 years of the study, comparing 1057 who did go on to develop PMS to 1968 who did not.
The women who were current smokers were 2.1 times more likely than non smokers to report PMS within 2 -4 years. Women who picked up smoking at a tender age had their risk increases. Dr Bertone- Johnson said,
“Previous studies suggested that smoking may alter levels of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and other hormones, many of which may be involved in the development of PMS.”
“Some studies have found that smokers have shorter and more irregular menstrual cycles than non-smokers”
“Smoking may also lower levels of vitamin D in the body, which also may increase a woman’s risk of developing PMS”.
Hypnosis To Change Your Life by Steve G Jones.